it about six or seven times." The five queens known as the Candaces are other political leaders, though, as Monges notes, not without their spiritual aspects. One
case, while her exact identity is still somewhat in doubt, the warring Candace with one eye
should be. After all, didn't Antony's dalliance with a certain Egyptian queen just a few years back lead to his ouster by Augustus? Suddenly, the call to arms. As you take up
while working on her doctoral dissertation at Temple University. She is currently at
extending southward up the Nile where, it is reputed, the rulers are often queens. Back home across the Mediterranean, women have very little power, which is, Air Max Models By Year you think, as it
personal transformation. "Today we don't have women with the power they had then."
Besides shedding light on a few of history's female leaders, Monges is keenly interested in how they might extend their influence into the present, as agents of
so impressed Strabo, Pliny, and others that the term itself became known outside Africa.
your position against the enemy, you are surprised to note that a formidable looking woman is leading the charge against you.
Chico Scholar Documents Female Leadership Patterns of Ancient Africa
research trip to Egypt in 1997. This research was made possible by grants from Faculty Development and the School of Graduate, International, and Sponsored Programs.
Besides Candace, another title sometimes chosen by queens was "God's Wife of Amun," an office that carried with it the responsibility for both spiritual and
Imagine it: you're a foot soldier in the Roman army that for several years has been occupying the border region between Egypt and Kush, a wealthy "king" dom
work on another book, this one documenting female leadership patterns in classical Africa. She plans to incorporate her research into the series of rites of passage workshops
masculine woman, blind in one eye."
by Rome against Kush. Not bad soldiering for a "one eyed virago," as the Romans called her. Among the treasures of Kush is a statue of Caesar likely taken in battle by
her position as a divine ruler was more important than her gender."
The queen most people have heard of is Hatshepsut, who ruled Kemet (Egypt) one and a half millennia BC. Famous for dressing as a man, even sporting a false
short lived, she eventually won from Caesar Augustus a treaty that ensured peace between her nation and his and, incredibly, secured the return of tributes previously levied
Miriam M Monges, Sociology and Social Work /Center for Multicultural and Gender Studies, began her research on African queens and female deities
She was fierce, she was black, and she prevailed. Her army of thirty thousand not only beat the Romans, it took captives and plunder. And although her victory was
Nawidemak, is even portrayed on a pyramid as Osiris god by the wings of the great goddess Isis. "Perhaps," Monges speculated, "this is because
pronounced can DAH say), a term meaning Queen Mother or Queen Regent. In any Air Max Black Girls
"I see this probably being my life's work," Monges said during an interview conducted in her office filled with African icons and memorabilia, some collected on a
beard, Hatshepsut is one of the queens Monges classifies as a political leader. "She was in charge of Karnac, one of the largest religious facilities ever Vatican could fit inside
by a woman. Strabo reports that she was "a
The Africans attacked even though they were not as fully equipped as the Romans. They were led in their attack Nike Air Max Acg
for women that she regularly conducts.
material realms. As the overseer of Karnac, one God's Wife during the Twentieth Dynasty was responsible for some
Candace, Queen Air Max Nike Black And Pink
this queen. In his account of the battle, Strabo refers to her as Candace, which is somewhat misleading because there were at least five queens called Candace (or Kandace,
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